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China & Cybersecurity

China and Cybersecurity: 
Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain

Jon R. Lindsay,
Tai Ming Cheung,
Derek S. Reveron,

Oxford University Press, 2015


China’s influence in cyberspace parallels its meteoric economic growth and formidable military transformation. Western pundits and policymakers often single out Chinese hackers as a major threat to economic and national security. Chinese critics, by contrast, decry internet surveillance by the United States and American dominance in internet governance. To get beyond the hype, an understanding of China and cybersecurity requires a combination of international and interdisciplinary perspectives. The contributors to this volume—a diverse mix of scientists, scholars, and policy analysts from China, the U.S., Canada, and the U.K.—bring a balance of perspectives to bear on the issues. Even though they do not always agree with one another—an important point—they are able to identify important dynamics which will remain relevant even as new facts and opinions emerge. This volume contributes substantively to our understanding of China and cybersecurity by exploring how China’s domestic political and economic system shapes its cyber activities. The collaboration also stands as an example of how Chinese and Western experts, as Li Yuxiao stresses in his chapter, can work together to improve trust and understanding in an area of great mutual concern.



Table of Contents

Introduction: China and Cybersecurity, Controversy and Context
Jon R. Lindsay

I. Espionage and Cybercrime

The Chinese Intelligence Services: Evolution and Empowerment in Cyberspace
Nigel Inkster

From Exploitation to Innovation: Acquisition, Absorption, and Application
Jon R. Lindsay and Tai Ming Cheung

Investigating the Chinese Online Underground Economy
Zhuge Jianwei, Gu Lion, Duan Haixin, and Taylor Roberts

II. Military Strategy and Institutions

From Cyberwarfare to Cybersecurity in the Asia-Pacific and Beyond
Ye Zheng

Chinese Writings on Cyber Warfare and Coercion
Kevin Pollpeter

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army Computer Network Operations Infrastructure
Mark A. Stokes

Civil-Military Integration in Cybersecurity: A Study of Chinese Information Warfare Militias
Robert Sheldon and Joe McReynolds

III. National Cybersecurity Policy

China’s Cybersecurity Situation and the Potential for International Cooperation
Li Yuxiao and Xu Lu

Evolving Legal Frameworks for Protecting Internet Privacy in China
Xu Jinghong

“Foreign Hostile Forces”: The Human Rights Dimension of China’s Cyber Campaigns
Sarah McKune

IV. Practical and Theoretical Implications

China and Information Security Threats: Policy Responses in the United States
Fred H. Cate

Conclusion: The Rise of China and the Future of Cybersecurity
Jon R. Lindsay and Derek S. Reveron