Cross-Domain Deterrence

Cross-Domain Deterrence: 

Strategy in an Era of Complexity


Jon R. Lindsay, 

Erik Gartzke, 

Oxford University Press, 2019

Deterrence as a strategy and doctrine was effectively deployed by the United States during the Cold War. Today states face a widening range of destabilizing threats, in particular to critical infrastructure in space and cyberspace. “Cross domain deterrence” (CDD) seeks to counter threats in one arena (such as space or cyber warfare) by relying on different types of capabilities (such as sea power or nuclear weapons, or even non-military tools such as access to markets or normative regimes) where deterrence may be more effective. The increasing complexity of CDD presents an opportunity to rethink what we think we know about deterrence. This volume gathers together senior and junior scholars and experienced practitioners to discuss the theory and practice of CDD.

This book is part of a broader research project sponsored by the Department of Defense Minerva Initiative


Sullivan, James. Review of Cross-domain deterrence: strategy in an era of complexity, by Jon R. Lindsay and Erik Gartzke. International Affairs 95, no. 4 (July 1, 2019): 937–39.

Futter, Andrew. “Navigating the New Complexity.” The Nonproliferation Review 26, no. 5–6 (September 2, 2019): 635–36.

Demchak, Chris C. Review of Cross-Domain Deterrence: Strategy in an Era of Complexity., by Jon R. Lindsay and Erik Gartzke. Perspectives on Politics 17, no. 4 (December 2019): 1254–55.

Table of Contents


1. Cross-Domain Deterrence, from Practice to Theory, Jon Lindsay and Erik Gartzke

The Concept of Cross-Domain Deterrence 

2. Cross-Domain Deterrence in American Foreign Policy, Michael Nacht, Patricia Schuster, and Eva Uribe

3. The Past and Future of Deterrence Theory, Patrick M. Morgan

4. Simplicity and Complexity in the Nth Nuclear Era, Ron Lehman

Strategic Implications of Different Military Domains 

5. Deterrence in and through Cyberspace, Jacquelyn Schneider

6. Anti-Satellite Weapons and the Instability of Deterrence, Benjamin Bahney, Jonathan Pearl, and Michael Markey

7. Air Power Versus Ground Forces: Deterrence at the Operational Level of War, Phil Haun

8. Sea Power Versus Land Power: Cross-Domain Deterrence in the Peloponnesian War, Joshua Rovner

Communication and Credibility across Domains 

9. International Law and the Common Knowledge Requirements of Cross-Domain Deterrence, James Morrow

10. Signaling with Secrets: Evidence on Soviet Perceptions and Counterforce Developments in the Late Cold War, Brendan Rittenhouse Green and Austin G. Long

11. Extended Deterrence and Assurance in Multiple Domains, Rupal Mehta

Interactions across Military and Nonmilitary Domains

12. Asymmetric Advantage: Weaponizing People as Non-Military Instruments of Cross-Domain Coercion, Kelly Greenhill

13. Linkage Politics: Managing the End of the Cold War, Joshua R. Itzkowitz Shifrinson 

14. Beyond Military Deterrence: The Multidimensionality of International Relations in East Asia, Chin-Hao Huang and David Kang


15. The Analytic Potential of Cross-Domain Deterrence, Jon Lindsay and Erik Gartzke